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Неизвестный Кипр

Фото британского генерал лейтенанта сэра Гарнета Уолсели, который был отправлен в качестве первого Верховного комиссара на Кипр в июле 1878 года.





Ниже отрывки из его дневника.

ПЯТНИЦА 6 СЕНТЯБРЯ 1878 г.
Наш повар старый Христофоли - неудача. Суп - лучшее, что он делает. Хотя мы живем на острове, нет рыбы. Очень немногие люди доверяют рыбалку для получения средств к существованию, независимо от того, возникает ли она от лени или неприязни к морю, я не знаю.
Автор Джордж Лассаль предположил, что, хотя на море вокруг Кипра есть много рыбы, на острове не было никаких средств, чтобы держать его свежим, и не было рынков, гостиниц или ресторанов, чтобы купить его. Снег, привезенный из Троодоса, был слишком дорогим для бедных рыбаков, чтобы купить. Одна большая роскошь, которую мы здесь имеем, - это замороженный снег, который приносит почти ежедневно с горы Олимп. Когда мы пересохнемся с жаждой, в этом климате стоит роскошь в холодной воде. Коровье молоко неизвестно, как масло.


[Spoiler (click to open)]MONDAY 29 JULY 1878
To my surprise all ninety mule carts brought from Malta to Cyprus were deemed useless because someone forgot to pack the linkpins required to put them together. We have settled for camels and native carts drawn by two bullocks each to transport our baggage to Nicosia. The local labourers we hired are generally skulkers (someone who is sly and a slacker).

TUESDAY 30 JULY 1878 – FIRST ENTRY
Left Larnaca by the wrong road and became lost. The corn is cut everywhere and the people are engaged in threshing. The corn is threshed by bullocks dragging behind them a wooden sledge on which the driver sits on a chair or sometimes stands. I saw one woman driving the bullocks with her baby seated behind her on a chair that I presumed was somehow fastened to the sledge.

TUESDAY 30 JULY 1878 – SECOND ENTRY
The wells are few and scarcely a river has more than a pool of stagnant water in it. Where are the forests? We saw here and there, a few mulberry trees but even the silk worm has ceased to be propagated in the late years due to the oppression of the taxpayer.

TUESDAY 30 JULY 1878 – THIRD ENTRY
A guard of honour greeted our party as we entered Nicosia and a small crowd was assembled at the gate. A salute was fired from the walls. There are only three gates to the city, which are closed every night. The view of Nicosia as you approach it is by no means striking. Towering above the houses and above the walls is the roofless mosque of Saint Sophia with its minarets added by the Turks when they took the place (300 years ago). The guns of the ramparts are old bronze Venetian pieces.

TUESDAY 30 JULY 1878 – FOURTH ENTRY
Some three or four aquaducts supply the city with fresh water. Without these aquaducts the place would be uninhabitable for the water from the wells would be impregnated by the filth exuding from the cesspits (sewage) belonging to every house, which are never cleaned out. When one cesspit becomes full with human excrement another one is opened: but there is no attempt at any sort of drainage.

TUESDAY 30 JULY 1878 – FIFTH ENTRY
In the evening I rode to the Konak (official Ottoman residence) where I met the Pasha and all the officials including all the Turkish functionaries and the Greek Archbishop. Pessim Pasha who was the acting Governor had a common face that was deeply marked with smallpox. The Konak is a large rambling building with a gothic archway. There is a garrison there with dens for the convicts: gathered here from all parts of Turkey. Many are laden with heavy chains, being criminals of the worst kind.

TUESDAY 30 JULY 1878 – SIXTH ENTRY
The house that I am renting in Nicosia belongs to a Greek villain who seeks to profit from everything and everyone. His wife must have been good looking once. She is still young and her large family swarms around her. She has a large stomach as if she was pregnant cause (I am told) by being ignorantly treated after childbirth. I am also told that this woman was born in Nicosia and has never stepped foot beyond its gates.

SATURDAY 3RD AUGUST 1878
There is still a good deal of fever amongst the troops and probably heat apoplexy (stroke) from keeping the men under bell tents, which are next to no protection from the sun's rays. I had heard from Mr Palmer that women were offered for sale as slaves in the public market here in Nicosia. I asked the archbishop who said he did not believe a word of it as no slave has been sold opening in Cyprus for many years.

TUESDAY 6TH AUGUST 1878
I hear complaints from all quarters that the peasants refuse to pay the tax farmers. I have circulated a printed notice requesting the peasants to pay and informing the farmers that if they seek to cheat or extort or oppress the peasants in any way, they will be dealt with the appropriate punishment.

WEDNESDAY 14TH AUGUST 1878
Archbishop Sofronios paid me a visit. I questioned him about the lepers. He told me that the Leper's village was about a fifteen minute ride from Nicosia and contained forty-one lepers of both sexes. They had children sometimes which he did not think as horrible. He thought it was wrong that they had been forbidden to enter the towns as he did not believe that leprosy was contagious: it was certainly hereditary. He had known a clean woman who married a leprous man and lived with him for fifteen years and did not contract leprosy, although their child was leprous. There were a few leprous Turks but the majority were Christians. When a person was suspected of leprosy, he would be examined by the doctor at Nicosia and if pronounced diseased he would be sent to the Leper village.

FRIDAY 16TH AUGUST 1878
I have prohibited the export of wood in any shape or form to protect the small remaining quantity of timber on the island. I have discovered that the timber exported from Cyprus is used to make trinkets and mementoes in the Holy Land by scheming foreigners. I don't like foreigners. I hate their ways and customs. If I had ten sons I would teach them likewise. They more they hated foreigners the more they will cling to England as their home.

SATURDAY 17TH AUGUST 1878
The thermometer in our camp read 110 degrees Fahrenheit. We have now about eighteen percent of Europeans in hospital with fever. One of the sappers (solider engineer) shows signs of typhoid: his tongue being black and foul.

SUNDAY 18TH AUGUST 1878
Went to the monastery church today. The mass was a mockery of everything sacred. Dirty, greasy priests attempting some dreary dirges (mournful songs) that were utterly devoid of music or melody. Many of the Greek priests cannot read or write which would explain why no register of births, deaths or marriages were kept. The priests never cut their hair and wear it hanging down their backs, parted down the centre which gives them a nasty effeminate look, which is not agreeable. From behind a curtain the priests were concealed from the public gaze. The whole ceremony was like a penny peep-show very badly done by inferior showmen. Each monk wore a dirty faded old dressing gown, except the Abbott wore a brand new one, made from very poor purple silk.

We all proceeded to the door of the church where at last the Abbott took the British Jack (flag) from a table and opened and fastened it to the halliards (rope) and it was hauled up to the shouts of 'zito' from the ugly crowd. Cheers were given to the Queen (Victoria) and the ceremony was over.

They say the Turk is a clever diplomat and with Cyprus he has made the best bargain. He takes all the plums out of the island and makes us pay rent annually for the estate he has ruined.

SUNDAY 25TH AUGUST 1878
266 convicts were escorted from the gaol in Nicosia to Kyrenia under guard comprising of about 100 Goorkhas (Nepalese soldiers), 50 Turkish troops and some Zaptiehs (policemen). The prisoners were tied together in groups of four with ropes. The prisoners marched along cheerfully but the soldiers fell down like ninepins due to the intense heat of the sun and the fact they were wearing a ridiculous rifle uniform. Some of the prisoners carried pet dogs under their arms; others carried money intent on bribing the officials to receive special treatment. The female friends of the prisoners turned out to see them leave. There were some painful scenes of mothers and sisters and children bidding a long goodbye to their scoundrel male convict relations.

WEDNESDAY 28TH AUGUST 1878
We rode through the village of Haia Thalass (Athalassa) where we saw a few mud huts without a tree or a patch of any garden. As usual we were assailed by some horrid looking dogs. We arrived at the home of our host, Mr Mattei in Nisso. I am told he was the man who invented a system to rid the island of its locusts.
All the men had noticed that Mr Mattei's servant was remarkably good looking: the first really pretty Greek girl I have seen. When I asked if she was married we were told that she was married to a man who carried a large great knife.

THURSDAY 5TH SEPTEMBER 1878
One man dead of sunstroke and twenty-one admitted to the hospital with fever. Dr Jackson says it is malarious. I have taken steps to collect and destroy locusts eggs paying 300 piastres per kilogramme. Each seed bag collected contains about fifty eggs.

FRIDAY 6TH SEPTEMBER 1878
Our cook old Christopholi is a failure. The soup is the best thing he makes. Even though we live on an island there is no fish. Very few people here trust fishing for a livelihood, whether it arises from laziness or a dislike of the sea, I do not know.
Author George Lassalle suggested that although the sea around Cyprus had plenty of fish, there were no means on the island to keep it fresh and there were no markets, hotels or restaurants to buy it. The snow brought from Troodos was far too expensive for poor fishermen to buy. The one great luxury we have here is frozen snow, which is brought almost daily from Mount Olympus. When we are parched with thirst, a tumbler of iced water is a luxury in this climate. Cow's milk is unknown as is butter. However we do have cheese.

SATURDAY 7TH SEPTEMBER 1878
I am told that the people in the district of Famagusta are very poor and look tattered. In places they are living on their goats and they cannot till the land because they have no money for seed. If this is trye, I must advance them corn for seed.

FRIDAY 13TH SEPTEMBER 1878
We arrived at Cape Baffo near the town of Ktima. The town has about 1700 inhabitants, two thirds being Mohomedans. Found the old prison at the Konak (town hall) where the sixteen prisoners there are murderers, thieves and rapists. I hope to take fourteen with me to Nicosia where I hope they will be condemned to death.

SUNDAY 15TH SEPTEMBER 1878
Another man died today of fever.

FRIDAY 20TH SEPTEMBER 1878
If we did not have to pay the Porte (Ottoman government) such a ridiculously large sum of money per annum we could convert Cyprus into a splendid country. Today as we were returning to our camp at Dali, we rode by a running stream. The water was a sickly yellow in colour and the smell was the same as a decaying body. I presume that this water was sweeping down all the filth which people of this country never trouble themselves to bury, but instead allow to accumulate round their villages.

SUNDAY 22ND SEPTEMBER 1878
When I went to the village of Dali today I discovered that the church was closed. I was told that the Bishop had refused his congregation to enter until they had paid him their church tax.

THURSDAY 26TH SEPTEMBER 1878
I bought an ancient Greek coin today to give as a present to the Queen (Victoria). I paid three pounds for it. Scarcely a day passes when I discover some news about a corrupt native official.

FRIDAY 27TH SEPTEMBER 1878
I slept under mosquito net to protect myself against malaria. I presume the net curtains prevent the malaria from getting at you during the night.

FRIDAY 4TH OCTOBER 1878
Found out today that the brother of a man who calls himself General Cesnola (most probably an organ grinder) has been excavating here although he was distinctly told he must not do so. Sent out troops to seize whatever he has found and to arrest him if he is caught in the act. Infernal Italians.

TUESDAY 8TH OCTOBER 1878
I am sending the Queen a silk chemise by mail as a specimen of Cyprus work.

THURSDAY 10TH OCTOBER 1878
Mr Cesnola has written today that he is appealing for protection to the American Consul in Beyrout on the subject of his arrest. At the court today, the case of a prisoner who committed a cruel murder came before us. I am determined that he should be hanged as I am most anxious to show the people that under our rule a guilt man will be hanged and not allowed to escape as they do so under the Ottomans.

FRIDAY 4TH OCTOBER 1878
We visited the village of Kythrea which from a distance looks like a green oasis. It is a flourishing place full of flour mills and orchards and owes its existence to a stream of water some nine miles long and three or four feet wide. History does not record that this stream has ever dried out even during the years of the greatest droughts. The main body of water turns 27 flourmills. In the lower story of one house I see about forty women picking cotton which is the great crop of the valley.

WEDNESDAY 23RD OCTOBER 1878
Mr Cesnola's trial was today. He lied hard but his own servants betrayed him. He was fined four liras and had all the curiosities in his possession confiscated.

THURSDAY 28TH NOVEMBER 1878
Met with a priest who wanted to be granted immunity from Municipal taxation. Said that the Turks (Ottomans) had always exempted them. These devils would force others to pay what they believe is theirs but would wriggle out of paying what they owe others. The fact is that under Ottoman Rule these Christian priests did not have to pay taxes and were allowed to do as they pleased.

SATURDAY 30TH NOVEMBER 1878
Here I am performing, I'm afraid a thankless duty. I have great faith in my ultimate success and hope that some day to die in victory and my name may be handed down in posterity in connection with the event.

SUNDAY 1ST DECEMBER 1878
Still no rain. From the minarets of the mosque they now hang out a banner with a prayer for rain on it.

END OF DIARY ENTRIES
Wolseley's wife stopped writing his diary entries once his wife Louisa (Loo) had arrived in Cyprus. I guess he had better things to do with his time.
Tags: История Кипра
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